王文琴:未曾命名的湖和未曾面对的历史

2010年03月10日 Leave a comment
来源:二闲集
信息:曾在人人网校内被删除,在天涯Qzone等地未通过敏感词过滤

迟疑很久,我才开始写这篇文章。我被一个问题萦绕:我为学校作了什么?

一九八一年春天,我是北大本科生的时候,发表过一篇题为《未名湖,你听我说》的短文,写到了湖畔风光和刚刚过去的文革祸难,也写了自己得到某种选择的 自由时产生的惶惑、思考和自勉。这篇文章曾做成配乐朗诵在电台广播,也被选入现代散文选集。我曾收到不少读者来信。他们诚挚坦率的言辞给了我温暖的鼓励。
这次前辈校友邀请撰写未名湖,我担心会重复旧话而不能动笔,直到我写完了《六十三名受难者和北京大学文革》。多年以来,我访问了上千的文革经历者,也 收集当时的文字资料。在前年完成的五十万字的《文革受难者》一书中,所记六百五十九名受难者出自全国各地,按照姓名拼音次序排列,而这一篇集中于北大一个 学校。
我未曾亲眼看见过北大文革。然而我在文革后考入北大,所以熟悉受难者死亡的地点——大多数受难者都是被害死在北大校园中的,也就是说,屠戮场所,就在未名湖周围。当我在电脑键盘上打出一个一个方块字的时候,文字所指代的死亡地点会具体形象地浮现在眼前。
一九六八年,俄语系讲师龚维泰被关在第一教室楼。他睡在地板上,看守他的人睡在床上。十一月七日,他在系中遭到“斗争”,除了“坐喷气式飞机”即弯腰 低头双臂被反拧在后形如飞机之外,拧他手臂的学生还用脚往下踹他的肩膀。那天夜间,龚维泰用刮脸刀割动脉自杀。第二天早上看守呵叱他为什么不起床,掀开被 子看到血流了一地。他的一个同事那天从门外经过,看到地面湿湿的,刚刚用拖把擦过,后来才知道用水擦去的是龚维泰的血。
我是北大学生的时候,常常在简称“一教”的这个楼里上课。坐在靠窗的座位时,看到窗外成群的燕子欢快地盘旋,我还为此写过一篇散文题为“啁啾”。但是我丝毫不知道脚下的地板上,曾经流淌过人血。看不到有关文字记载。文革刚刚过去三四年,留下的已经是水洗般的遗忘。
进北大西门往北,在校园的西北角上有一个幽静的小湖。这小湖是北大湖群中的一个,却没有名字,似乎是真正的“未名”之湖。地处“海淀”(此“海”并非 今日所说的“大海”之海),北大校园有若干小湖,未名湖是其中大者。那小湖岸边有一棵大树,树上有一根横枝伸向湖面。经济系学生杨明爱被指控为“反动学 生”并停发生活费。一九六六年九月,当红卫兵们得到免费车票和食宿兴高采烈到全国各地“革命大串连”的时候,杨明爱在那根横枝上吊死了自己。那小湖、大树 以及那横枝至今依然还在,杨明爱的名字则没有人知道了。 
陈彦荣是中国科学院气体厂工人,三十七岁,家住北大旁边的蓝旗营一O九号。一九六六年八月二十七日傍晚,北京大学附属中学红卫兵抄了他的家,并把他和 妻子刘万才一起抓到北京大学附属中学校内。他们用铜头皮带、木棒和铁条毒打陈彦荣刘万才夫妇。下半夜一点,陈彦荣被打死,刘万才也被打得遍体鳞伤。和陈彦 荣一起被打死的,还有一名至今不知姓名的老年女人。文革后“平反”,标准做法是付给家人二百四十元。陈彦荣有六个未成年的孩子,因此北大给了他家二千五百 元。他的妻子拿到钱的时候说:“我一辈子从来没见过这么多钱呀。”然后她大哭说:“我要钱干什么?我要人呐。”
人在哪里?他们原本是在未名湖边走着、跑着、工作着的活生生的人。在湖边,他们遭到了“斗争”,毒打,监禁,各种侮辱,还有心理摧残和折磨。六十三个人被害死了,占当时北大总人口的百分之零点五。如今未名湖水依旧,但是永远不会再现曾经投影其中的受难者的身影。
一九九八年为百年校庆编写了两卷本北大历史。我注意到,书中只印出了文革中被迫害致死的正教授的名字,连副教授都不记,更不要说年轻教员和普通职员、 炊事员了。(北京农业大学校史印出了包括助教学生在内的三十名文革受难者的名字。不过,清华大学篇幅更长的校史连正教授的名字都没有写。)我为此问起北大 出版社的编辑。编辑苦笑着说,就这样,还有人到办公室来纠缠,要把现有校史的文革部分删除。
对比于这种嚣张,是受害者们的沉默。
一九九九年,一位同届北大同学告诉我,历史系俞伟超老师在大教室讲授“秦汉考古”,听课的学生很多,也都看到他缺失手指,听说是在文革中遭到“批斗” (需要一本文革“词典”来解释这种词语,不过本书读者多半还都知其意)后自杀未死留下的残疾。他那时任中国历史博物馆馆长,我立刻就往博物馆给他写了信, 希望了解他的文革遭遇。
我从未收到他的回信,也没有收到被邮局退回的信。
北大历史系在文革中有五个人“自杀”身亡。我用了引号,因为不认为这是通常所说的“自杀”,而是被文革谋杀的。俞伟超老师在一九六六年文革开始的时候 两次自杀。第一次触高压电,双手食指被烧毁。第二次卧轨,火车头把他铲出了轨道。他活了下来,文革后成为中国历史的最高行政长官之一。我当然不会给他讲历 史写作重要性的大道理,也不会跟他说如果北大历史系的文革历史都不写出,遑论别处。他的失去的手指显然也每一天都提醒着他的文革经历。但是,连他也对文革 历史讳莫如深。这是因为什么?我确实很想向他询问,而不是自己来猜测。可是我一直没有能找到他的电话号码,也不可能再找到——他已经在去年离世。
北大之湖,名为未名。湖名的字面意思是从未命名,但是这“未名”就成为湖的名字。从起名字的角度来说,这未尝不是一个别致的方式。但是北大的未被面对的近期历史,却不能用这种方式对待,不能总是未被面对下去。
一本世界历史书谈到亚洲文明古国时说,印度是一个宗教的国度,中国是一个历史的国度。这种说法大概过于简略。不过,中国古代文明确实留下了很多历史 书。实际上,在中国的传统中,除了记录发生过的事情,历史写作也承担了其他文明中可能并非由其承担的任务,其中最突出的一个方面是阐明道德原则和是非基 准。正因为此,历史写作也更加具有正面的建设性的意义。我以为文革历史的写作,对当代人尤其可能具有这方面的意义。这项工作是为了面对历史、记录真相,也 是为了社会的道德自救。
一九九O年代,在北大西门内,盖起了漂亮的赛克勒考古博物馆。我在那里看到远古时代的石器,在玻璃背后,在柔和的灯光下,熠熠生辉。可是我也知道,一 九六八年五月十六日,就在这块宅基地上,在互为直角的“民主楼”和“外文楼”对面,又加筑了两面围墙,围成了“监改大院”,关押了北大二百多名“牛鬼蛇 神”。因为被关者不被认为是人,这种校园监狱被俗称为“牛棚”,全国每个单位都建立了。这座大“牛棚”存在了十个月,里面有监规,还有各种刑罚。英语教授 徐锡良,是在美国出生长大的华侨,普通话说得不太流利,有一天没有能背诵出毛泽东语录,被罚跪的时候,头上还顶了一块板,板上放了一碗水,水翻出来就遭 打。西语系另一教授朱光潜有一天正在“劳改”,一个看守人员叫他过去,扔给他一条绳子,说:“老家伙你活得腻不腻?上吊吧。要不,用剪子刀子也行。”文革 中西语系也有五个人被迫害致死。
石器时代的文物当然应该珍藏,但是文革历史如“牛棚”也应该被记载,文革受难者的名单也应该被永久保存在博物馆里面让人看到。在这个科学技术前所未有 地高度发达的时代,人的生命和尊严,也应该得到有史以来最高的地位。今天,被希特勒杀害的三百万的人的名单已经放在庄严的大博物馆里和电脑网上的资料库 里,被斯大林杀害的一百三十四万个名字已经被刻写在电脑光盘上和大量分散各处的小型纪念碑上。我想,有尊严的北大人不会同意,北大受难者的名字是低人一等 不需纪念的,是可以被水洗般地遗忘的。
五年以前,我在网络空间中建立了一座文革受难者纪念园,宗旨是记录每一个受难者的名字。这是一项志愿工作。我想借此文集发行,邀请校友们参与这项工作。我的电邮地址是:ywang7@uchicago.edu。谢谢你们。

王文琴
二OO五年七月
Categories: 未分类

Twitter works on technology to evade censors

2010年01月28日 Leave a comment
Categories: 未分类

推荐另一个幡襁工具 GTuNNe1

2010年01月27日 Leave a comment

幡襁软件简介:GTunne1篇

作者:@_J_Smith_ 来源:推客/浏览器_

注:该幡襁软件稳定性较高,即使不用也推荐在硬盘里留一个备用

软件名称:GTunne1

软件类型:免费软件/绿色软件

最新版下载地址:http://is.gd/75v2o (需幡襁,免幡襁下载地址http://is.gd/75vh6,襁内用户也可参考<<使用网页代理下载最新版幡襁软件>>中的方法下载最新版GTunne1)

代理服务器地址:127.0.0.1:8081

GTunne1共有四种连接模式,标准模式、Skype模式、GTalk模式和Tor模式,其中标准模式和GTalk模式速度较快,但是不稳定。Skype和Tor模式较稳定,但是速度较慢。

GTunne1的使用方法可以参考<<细说GTunnel的四种连接模式>>

你也可以在这里下载到GTunne1组合包(集成了GTunnel、Skype、Tor和Chrome浏览器)

设置代理服务器的方法可以参考下面的文章,只要将文中的Tor代理(127.0.0.1:8118)替换成GTunnel的代理(127.0.0.1:8081)即可。
<<如何在Internet Explorer浏览器中设置代理服务器>>
<<如何在Firefox浏览器中设置代理服务器>>
<<如何在Opera浏览器中设置代理服务器>>
<<如何在Chrome浏览器中设置代理服务器>>

UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

经测试,一般模式速度较快,看悠土鳖不卡

Categories: 计算机与 Internet

keso’s view: 三网融合:不要成为倒退

2010年01月24日 Leave a comment

2010-01-16

三网融合:不要成为倒退

三网融合,几乎注定要成为一次巨大的倒退,宣传系统取得互联网主导权,电信系统彻底沦为“管道”。从去年下半年以来的发展看,宣
传系统利用手里的宣传工具,进行赤裸裸的舆论审判、舆论镇压,拼命打击电信系统,以至于今天的工信部,看上去像一个丫鬟一样,低眉顺眼,唯唯诺诺。在对三
网融合一片叫好声中,感谢《中国企业家》发出不同声音。

三网融合:不要成为倒退:
谁将拥有这此的主导权呢?根据会议结果来看,主要变化在于,符合条件的广电企业可以经营增值电信业务、基础电信业务和互联网业
务;符合条件的电信企业可以从事部分广播电视节目的生产制作和传输。按照这个标准,电信能够开展的业务仅为IPTV,而广电无疑扩展空间更大。而且,据相
关人士透露,在决议草稿征求意见时,广电方面保持了强势。

http://www.cnemag.com.cn/fenxplun/newsfx/2010-01-15/184918.shtml

Categories: 未分类

keso’s view: 中国工程院院士方滨兴:美国令网络信息安全自由流动面临危险

2010年01月24日 Leave a comment

2010-01-24

中国工程院院士方滨兴:美国令网络信息安全自由流动面临危险

新华社把GFW之父请出来抨击美国,倒是很会选演员。而且方滨兴也很善演,指鹿为马,混淆视听。他说的都是事实,美国也过滤搜索引擎,但他没告诉你,美国的过滤都明确说明违反哪部法律,谁投诉的,美国不会出现“李慧镝”这个名字莫名其妙不让搜索的事。澳大利亚政府也会采购青少年保护软件,但不会发个通知强制安装。他还用机场安检给GFW封堵有用信息找理由,但机场安检不会妨碍不坐飞机的人,属于小范围安全措施,就像任何企业都有权禁止员工访问外部网站,但国家没有这个权力。

 "
中国工程院院士方滨兴:美国令网络信息安全自由流动面临危险:

当然由于技术水平限制而导致封堵误伤了一些有用信息,这也是没办法的事情,这就好比民航无法鉴别什么液体是有害的,干脆就什么液体都不允许带上飞机,哪怕是你当面能够试喝的白水,也绝对不允许带上飞机,而乘客显然已经接收了这一严格的实物过滤。"

附<网瘾战争>ed2k链接:
ed2k://|file|[%E7%88%B1%E8%80%81%E8%99%8E%E6%B8%B8%E5%88%9B%E4%BD%9C%E5%9B%A2%E9%98%9F][%E7%AC%AC3%E4%BD%9C.%E7%BD%91%E7%98%BE%E6%88%98%E4%BA%89[GB][1024×768.x264.AAC].mp4|784774019|67F298CA261D14367195C922BA49CE66|h=QNCKIY5NFNW4QQCKC2JTZVI6AWHVBNHO|/

Categories: 未分类

Internet freedom 官方翻译版

2010年01月22日 Leave a comment

from : http://www.america.gov/st/democracyhr-chinese/2010/January/20100121212440eaifas0.9105341.html

2010.01.21

克林顿国务卿关于互联网自由的讲话

 

克林顿国务卿2009年1月21日在盛顿哥伦比亚特区新闻博物馆(Newseum)发表讲话,阐述互联网自由对社会进步和经济增长的重要性,宣布将把增进“连接自由”作为一项基本外交目标。以下是讲话全文,由美国国务院国际信息局(IIP)翻译。

希拉里克林顿(Hillary Rodham Clinton)国务卿

盛顿哥伦比亚特区新闻博物馆(Newseum)

2009年1月21日(星期四)


常感谢,艾伯托(Alberto)。不仅要感谢你的赞誉和介绍,而且要感谢你和你的同事们在这个重要机构中发挥的领导作用。很高兴来到新闻博物馆。这个博
物馆是一座纪念碑,见证了我们最珍视的一些自由。我十分感谢能有此机会谈谈如何运用这些自由应对二十一世纪的各项挑战。

虽然我并不能
看到你们所有的人——因为在这样的场合灯光照射我的眼睛,而你们都在背光处——但我知道在座的有很多朋友和老同事。我要感谢自由论坛(Freedom
Forum)的首席执行官查尔斯∙奥弗比(Charles Overby)光临新闻博物馆,以及我在参议院时的老同事理查德∙卢格(Richard
Lugar)和乔∙利伯曼(Joe Lieberman)两位参议员,他们两位都为《表达法》(Voice
Act)的通过作出了努力。这项立法表明,美国国会和美国人民不分党派,不分政府部门,坚定地支持互联网自由。

我听说在场的还有参议
员萨姆∙布朗巴克(Sam Brownback)、参议员特德∙考夫曼(Ted Kaufman)、众议员洛雷塔∙桑切斯(Loretta
Sanchez)、许多大使、临时代办和外交使团的其他代表、以及从中国、哥伦比亚、伊朗、黎巴嫩和摩尔多瓦等国前来参加我们关于互联网自由的“国际访问
者领袖计划”(International Visitor Leadership
Program)的人士。我还要提到最近被任命为广播理事会(Broadcasting Board of
Govenors)理事的阿斯彭研究所(Aspen Institute)所长沃尔特∙艾萨克森( Walter
Isaacson)。毫无疑问,他在阿斯彭研究所从事的支持互联网自由的工作中发挥了重要作用。

这是关于一个非常重要的议题的一个重
要讲话。但在开始谈这个议题前,我想简要介绍一下海地的情况。过去八天来,海地人民和世界人民携手应对一场巨大的灾难。我们这个半球曾历经磨难,但我们目
前在太子港面临的困境鲜有先例。通讯网络在我们抗击这场灾难的过程中发挥了极其重要的作用。不用说,当地的通讯网络遭受了重创,在很多地方被彻底摧毁。地
震发生后仅几个小时,我们就与民营部门的伙伴发起“海地”(HAITI)短信捐款活动,使美国的移动电话使用者能通过发短信向救灾工作捐款。这项活动充分
展示了美国人民的慷慨。迄今,该活动已为海地的抗震救灾筹集了2500多万美元。

信息网络在救灾现场也发挥了极其重要的作用。星期
六,我在太子港会见普雷瓦尔(Preval)总统时,他的重点目标之一是要努力恢复通讯。幸存的通讯设施不足以帮助当地政府官员相互联络,非政府组织以及
我们的文职部门和军队的领导人的运作能力都受到严重影响。高科技公司设立了互动地图,帮助确定救灾需要和目标资源。就在星期一,一名年仅七岁的小女孩和两
名妇女通过发短信呼救被一个美国搜救队从坍塌的超市的残砖碎瓦下救了出来。这些事例只是一个普遍现象的缩影。

信息网络的扩展正在为我
们的星球建立一个新的神经系统。在海地或湖南发生什么情况时,我们其余的人都能从当事者那里实时得知。我们还可以实时作出反应。灾后迫切希望提供帮助的美
国人和被困在超市瓦砾下的小姑娘以一年以前乃至一代人以前还想象不到的方式被联系在一起。今天,同样的原则适用于几乎整个人类。我们今天坐在这里,你们中
间任何人——或更有可能的是我们孩子中的任何人——都可以拿出很多人每天随身携带的通讯工具,将这次讨论的内容发送给全世界数十亿人。

在很多方面,信息从未像今天这么自由。与过去任何时候相比,今天都有更多的方式把更多的想法传播给更多的人。即使在集权国家,信息网络也在帮助人们发现新的事实,向政府更多地问责。


如,奥巴马总统11月访华期间与当地大学生的直接对话包含了网上提问,突显了互联网的重要性。在回答一个网上提问时,他强调人民有权自由获取信息。他说,
信息流通越自由,社会就越强健。他谈到获取信息的权力如何有助于公民向自己的政府问责,激发新的想法,鼓励创造性和创业精神。我今天来这里发表讲话正是出
于美国对这一经过实践检验的真理的信念。

由于人们的相互联系空前密切,我们也必须认识到这些新技术并非无条件地造福人类。这些工具也
正被用于阻碍人类进步和剥夺政治权利。正如钢可被用于建造医院也可用于制造机枪。核能可为城市提供动力也可摧毁城市。现代信息网络及其支持的技术既可被用
于行善也可被用于作恶。有助于组织自由运动的网络也能使“基地”组织得以煽动仇恨,挑起针对无辜者的暴力。具有开放政府信息和促进透明化潜力的技术也可被
政府劫持,用于镇压异见,剥夺公民权利。

过去一年来,我们看到对信息自由流通的威胁激增。中国、突尼斯和乌兹别克斯坦加强了对互联网
的审查。在越南,使用广受欢迎的社交网站的权利突然消失。上个星期五在埃及,30名博客作者和维权人士被拘留。这批博客作者中的一位是巴塞姆∙萨米尔
(Bassem
Samir)。他有幸获释,今天也在这里,同我们在一起。因此,一方面,这些技术的推广明显地正在改变我们的世界,另一方面,尚无法预知这样的改变将对世
界人民的人权和幸福产生何种影响。

这些新技术本身不会在争取自由与进步的斗争中选择立场。但是,美国要做到立场鲜明。我们支持一个允
许全人类平等享有知识和思想的互联网。而且我们认识到,在世界上建立何种信息基础设施将取决于我们和其他人为之确定的性质。虽然这是一个全新的挑战,但我
们确保思想自由交流的责任可追溯至和众国诞生之初。《宪法》第一修正案的内容字字镌刻在这座大楼前那块50吨重的田纳西大理石上。世世代代的美国人都为捍
卫刻在那块石头上的价值观付出了努力。

富兰克林•罗斯福(Franklin
Roosevelt)在1941年发表“四项自由”演讲时发扬了这些思想。当时,美国人面临着一系列的危机,此外还有信心危机。但是,对一个人人都享有言
论表达自由、信仰自由、没有贫困、没有恐惧的世界的憧憬冲破了他那个时代的重重困难。多年之后,我的楷模之一艾琳娜•罗斯福(Eleanor
Roosevelt)努力使这些原则成为《世界人权宣言》的奠基原则。这些原则成为继往开来每一代人的北斗,引导我们、鞭策我们、促使我们在险恶的环境中
勇于向前。

在科学技术飞跃发展的时候,我们必须反思这个传统。我们需要确保科学技术的进步与我们的原则同步。在接受诺贝尔奖时,奥巴
马总统讲到需要建设这样一个世界,让和平建立在每一个人固有的权利和尊严之上。几天后在乔治敦大学关于人权的演讲中,我表示我们必须探索途径,把人权变成
现实。今天,我们迫切需要在二十一世纪的电子世界中保护这些自由。

世界上有许多其他的网络,有些帮助人员或资源的流动,有些辅助志同
道合的个人之间的交流。但互联网是增强所有其他网络的能力和潜力的一个网络,因此,我们认为确保其使用者享有某些基本自由至关重要。其中最重要的是言论表
达自由。这种自由的定义不再仅仅是公民前往市政厅前的广场批评他们的政府,而不担心遭受报复。博客、电子邮件、社交网络和手机短信开启了交流思想的新途
径,也为信息审查带来了新目标。

甚至就在我今天向你们讲演的此刻,某些地方的政府审查人员正在竭力将我的话语从历史的记录中删除。但
历史早已作出裁决:这些手法注定失败。两个月前,我在德国参加了推倒柏林墙20周年纪念活动。参加这次活动的各国领导人向这个屏障对面那些英勇的男女志士
表示敬意,他们曾经通过散发被称为“地下刊物”(Samizdat)的小册子来阐明反对压迫的道理。这些传单对“东方集团”专制政权的宣传和用心提出了质
疑。许多人因散发传单受到残酷迫害,但他们的声音帮助穿透了“铁幕”的钢筋水泥和带刺的铁丝网。

柏林墙象征着一个分隔的世界,代表一个时代。今天,这堵墙的一些碎片就陈列在这座它们理应归属的博物馆里。在我们这个时代,具有代表性的基础设施就是互联网。它取代了分隔,象征着联系。但是,就在网络扩展到世界各国的同时,我们发现许多地方以虚拟的墙壁代替了有形的墙壁。


些国家竖起了电子屏障,阻止本国人民分享世界上的一部分网络。他们从搜索引擎提供的结果中删除字词、名称和短语。他们侵犯了那些发表非暴力政治言论的人的
隐私权。这些做法违反了《世界人权宣言》,因为《宣言》告诉我们,人人都有权通过“各种媒体不受疆界限制地寻求、接收和传播信息和思想”。由于这些限制手
段的蔓延,一个新的信息帷幕正在世界上许多地方降临。为穿越这种阻隔,个人视频和博客文章正成为当今时代的“地下刊物”。

正如过去的
专制政权一样,有些政府正在打击那些利用这些工具的独立思考者。在伊朗总统大选后的游行示威期间,用手机拍摄的一位年轻女子遭血腥屠杀的斑驳画面成为通过
数字技术对该政府暴行提出的控诉。我们已看到有报道说,当生活在海外的伊朗人在网上张贴对他们国家领导人的批评时,他们在伊朗的家人便成为报复的目标。尽
管政府普遍采取严厉的恐吓手段,但伊朗英勇的公民记者们继续利用技术向全世界及其同胞报道他们国内发生的事件。伊朗人民为自身的人权呐喊,同时也鼓舞了全
世界,他们的勇气正在重新诠释如何通过技术传播真理和揭露非正义现象。

所有的社会都承认言论自由有其限度。我们不能容忍煽动他人从事
暴力的人,例如此刻正利用互联网在全世界宣扬大规模屠杀无辜百姓的“基地”组织成员。那些以种族、宗教、族裔、性别或性取向为由攻击他人的仇恨言论也应受
到严厉斥责。遗憾的是,这些问题均构成日益严重的挑战,国际社会必须共同进行抗击。我们还必须解决匿名发表言论的问题。对于那些利用互联网招收恐怖主义分
子或传播被盗窃的知识产权的人,不能让他们将其网络行为与其真实身份脱钩。然而,对于那些为了和平的政治目的利用互联网的人士,这些并不能成为政府有计划
地侵犯他们的权利和隐私的托辞。

随着新技术的传播,言论自由可能是最明显会遇到各种挑战的一项自由权利,但并非仅此而已。信仰自由通
常涉及个人与造物主对话或不对话的权利。这是一种不需依赖技术的交流方式。然而,信仰自由还体现了与拥有共同价值观和人生观的人一起集会的普遍权利。在我
们的历史中,这类集会常见于教堂、犹太会堂、清真寺和寺庙。今天,这类集会也可能在网上进行。

互联网有助于不同信仰的人消除相互间的
分歧。正如总统在开罗所说,宗教自由对于人们能否共同生活至关重要。在我们寻求扩大对话之际,互联网蕴涵着巨大的希望。我们已开始使美国学生与全世界穆斯
林社会的年青人为讨论全球性挑战相互联络。我们将继续利用这个工具,支持不同宗教社群的个人相互讨论。

然而,某些国家则利用互联网打
击和压制宗教人士。例如,去年在沙特阿拉伯,一名男子因在博客上刊登介绍基督教的文章,被捕入狱达数月之久。哈佛大学一项调查表明,沙特政府封锁了许多介
绍印度教、犹太教、基督教乃至伊斯兰教的网页。包括越南和中国在内的一些国家也利用类似手段限制获得宗教信息的途径。

这些技术不得用
于惩罚和平的政治言论,同样也不可用于迫害或压制宗教少数派。祈祷往往在更高层次的网络进行。然而,互联网和社交网站等通讯技术应该有助于提高人们根据自
己的需要进行祈祷的能力,以及与拥有共同信仰的人集会和更多地了解其他人信仰的能力。正如我们促进其他生活领域的自由一样,我们也必须努力促进在网络上祈
祷的自由。

当然,还有无数人的生活并没享受到这些技术带来的益处。在我们的世界里,正如我多次指出的,才智有可能普及众人,但机会并
非如此。从长期获得的经验来看,我们知道,在人民缺乏途径获得知识、市场、资本和机会的国家,要促进社会和经济发展会十分艰难,有时则徒劳无功。在这种情
况下,互联网可发挥调节器的作用。通过向人们提供获得知识和潜在市场的途径,各种网络可为那些缺乏机会的地区创造机会。

在过去一年中,我在肯尼亚亲眼目睹了这种情况。那里的农牧民在开始使用移动银行技术后,收入提高了多达30%。在孟加拉,30多万人报名通过手机学习英语。在非洲撒哈拉沙漠以南地区,妇女企业家使用互联网获得小型贷款并与全球市场接轨。


界上经济地位最低的亿万人民有可能在生活中效仿上述取得进步的实例。在很多情况下,互联网、手机和其他通讯技术能对经济发展起到绿色革命(Green
Revolution)对农业所起的同等作用。现在,小小的投入便能产生巨大效益。世界银行的一项研究显示,在一个典型的发展中国家,手机普及率每增加
10%,人均国内生产总值便能增长将近1%。具体而言,如果以印度为例,那将相当于每年近100亿美元。

与全球信息网络连通就好比踏
上了通往现代化的阶梯。在这些技术问世的最初几年,许多人以为它们将在世界上的富人和穷人之间划出鸿沟,但那种情况并没有发生。今天共有40亿只手机在使
用。手机使用者中有很多是小贩、人力车夫和其他历来缺乏受教育及其他机会的人。信息网络是实现平等的有力手段,我们应共同使用这些技术帮助人们摆脱贫困,
不再有匮乏之虞。

我们完全有理由满怀希望:当人们充分利用信息网络和通讯技术时,他们将能取得巨大进步。但毫无疑问,也有些人正在利
用全球信息网络实现其阴暗目的,而且将继续这样做。暴力极端主义分子、犯罪集团、性犯罪者和独裁政府都妄图对全球网络加以利用。正如恐怖主义分子利用我们
社会的开放性趁机实施阴谋,暴力极端主义分子也要利用互联网进行煽动和恐吓。当我们努力增进这些自由时,我们也必须打击妄图利用通讯网络进行破坏并制造恐
惧的人。

各国政府和公民必须保持信心,作为国家安全和经济繁荣核心环节的网络是安全且有韧性的。这不仅仅是几个小黑客污损几个网站的问题,如果我们的信息网络安全得不到保障,我们的网上银行业务、电子商务活动以及保护亿万美元知识产权的能力就全都岌岌可危。


对破坏这些系统的活动,各国政府、民营部门和国际社会必须协调一致地采取行动。当黑客犯罪分子和有组织犯罪集团为非法牟利攻击网络时,我们需要更多的工具
帮助执法机构进行跨辖区的合作。儿童色情以及遭到贩运的妇女和女童所受的剥削通过互联网为整个世界所见并为剥削者借以牟利,对这种社会弊病也应采取同样的
应对措施。欧洲理事会在网络犯罪公约(Convention on Cybercrime
)方面的努力及其他方的类似努力促成了对此类犯罪起诉的国际协作,我们对此表示赞赏。我们还希望为此加倍努力。

我国政府及国务院已经
采取措施寻求通过外交方式来加强全球网络安全。国务院有大批人员从事这项工作。有关人员一直在协同努力。我们还在两年前设立了一个专门协调有关网络的对外
政策的办公室。我们致力于在联合国和其他多边论坛应对这一挑战,并把网络安全问题列入世界性议题。奥巴马总统刚刚任命了一位新的国家网络政策协调员,来帮
助我们更紧密地协调工作,以确保每个人的网络都是自由、安全和可靠的。

某些国家、恐怖主义分子以及他们的代理人必须明白,美国将保护
我们的网络系统。那些在我们国家或任何其他国家破坏信息自由流通的人对我们的经济、我们的政府和我们的公民社会构成了威胁。从事网络攻击的国家和个人将承
担后果并受到国际社会的谴责。在一个靠互联网连通的世界里,对一个国家的网络的攻击就是对所有人的攻击。通过强调这一点,我们可以在国家间建立行为准则,
并鼓励尊重全球网民。

最后一项自由或许是罗斯福总统与夫人多年前所思考和论述的自由的必然内含,它源于我前面已提到的四项自由,这就
是连接自由:政府不应阻止人民与互联网、与网站或与彼此连接。连接自由如同集会自由一样,只不过它是在网络空间。这一自由允许个人上网,聚集,希望还有合
作。一旦上网,你不必是大亨或摇滚乐明星便能对社会产生巨大影响。

对孟买恐怖主义袭击的最大规模的公众反应是由一位13岁少年发起
的。他使用社交网络组织了献血运动,并建立了一个大型跨宗教信仰的吊唁簿。在哥伦比亚,一位失业的工程师召集起全世界190个城市的1200万人,向哥伦
比亚革命武装力量(FARC)的恐怖活动发出抗议。这些抗议是历史上规模最大的反恐怖主义示威活动。在随后几个星期中,哥伦比亚革命武装力量经历了十年军
事行动中人数最多的弃甲和脱队事件。在墨西哥,一位对毒品暴力行径忍无可忍的公民发出的一份电子邮件像滚雪球一般发展成遍及该国所有32个省的大型示威活
动。仅在墨西哥城就有15万人上街抗议。因此,互联网能有助于人道社会抵制鼓吹暴力、犯罪和极端主义的人。

在伊朗、摩尔多瓦以及其他国家,网上的组织动员已成为促进民主、使公民对可疑的选举结果表达抗议的重要工具。甚至在美国等已建立民主制度的国家,我们也看到这些工具具有改变历史的力量。你们当中有些人可能还记得这里2008年的总统选举。(笑声)


这些技术相连接的自由可以帮助转变社会,但同时也对个人极其重要。我最近被一位医生的故事所感动——我不想说出他是哪个国家的人。他千方百计要为女儿的罕
见疾病作出诊断。他征询了20多位专家的意见,但仍然没有答案。最后,他是靠互联网搜索引擎得到了确切的诊断并找到了治疗方法
。这就是不受限制地使用搜索引擎技术之所以对个人生活如此重要的原因之一。

我今天概述的这些原则将成为我们对待互联网自由及其技术使
用问题的指导方针。我要谈谈我们在实践中是如何应用这些原则的。美国致力于为促进这些自由投入必要的外交、经济和技术资源。美国是一个由来自各个国家、反
映全球各种利益的移民组成的国家。我们的外交政策基于这样一种理念:当人民之间和国家之间合作时,美国比任何其他国家都受益。当冲突与误解造成国家间的不
合时,美国肩负着比任何国家都更沉重的负担。因此,我们处于有利位置,可以抓住这些随相互连接而来的机遇。我们作为如此众多技术的诞生地,有责任确保它们
从善使用。为此,我们需要建立能力,以推行我们在国务院称之为21世纪外交方略的规划。

重新调整我们的政策和我们的工作重点并非易
事,而适应新技术也鲜有捷径。当电报技术开始使用时,它给外交界许多人带来严重焦虑,因为天天收到发自华盛顿的指示不是一个百分之百令人欢迎的前景。但正
如我们的外交人员最终还是掌握了电报一样,他们也在为掌握这些新工具的潜力而努力。

我引以为豪的是,国务院已经在40多个国家展开努
力,帮助那些声音被压制性政府扼杀的人。我们也在努力使这个问题成为联合国的工作重点。我们正在将互联网自由纳入我国重新进入联合国人权理事会
(United Nations Human Rights Council)后提出的第一项决议案中。

我们还支持开发新工具,使公
民能够避开政治审查而行使其自由表达的权利。我们正在为世界各地的团体和组织提供资金,确保将这些新工具以当地语言版本提供给需要的人,并为他们提供安全
上网所需的培训。美国支持开展这些努力已有一段时间,侧重于尽可能切实有效地实施这些项目。美国人民应当知道,对互联网进行审查的国家也应当明白,我国政
府致力于促进互联网自由。

我们希望让人们掌握这些工具,用以增进民主和人权,应对气候变化和流行病,为实现奥巴马总统提出的一个没有核武器的世界的目标争取全球支持,鼓励可持续的经济发展,帮助改善底层人民的生活。


此,我今天宣布,未来一年中,我们将与实业界、学术界和非政府组织的合作伙伴一道,确立发挥联网技术威力的长期努力,利用这些技术推进我们的外交目标。我
们可以依靠手机、测绘应用软件和其他新工具来增进公民权能,辅助我们的传统外交。我们能够解决目前创新市场存在的缺陷。

请让我举一个例子。假设我想设计一种手机应用软件,让人们能够对包括我国政府在内的各政府部门的责任心和工作效率打分,并能够发现和报告腐败行为,实现这一设想所需的硬件已在几十亿潜在用户的手中,而且所需软件的开发和应用成本较低。


果人们利用这项技术,就可以帮助我们有的放矢地使用对外援助经费、改善人民的生活并鼓励外国投资方对负责任的政府投资。但目前的情况是,移动应用技术开发
商尚无资金援助来自行开发这项技术,而国务院现在还缺乏使之成为可能的机制。不过,这项行动应当有助于解决这一问题,并且使小笔创新投资能够带来长期回
报。我们将与专家共同努力,为这种风险投资项目确定最佳框架。我们还将需要科技公司和非营利机构的人才和资源,才能尽快取得最佳效果。因此,在座各位如有
此类才干和专长,我谨在此邀请你们鼎力相助。

与此同时,有些公司、个人和机构正在设计和开发各种已经能够推进我们的外交和发展目标的
创意和应用技术,而国务院将展开一项创新竞赛活动,让这项工作立刻得到推进。我们将邀请美国人提交应用软件和有关技术的最佳创意,它们应能有助于消除语言
障碍、克服文盲局限、将人们与他们所需要的服务和信息连通。例如,微软公司已经开发出网络医生软件的原型,以便为偏远地区提供医疗服务。我们希望看到更多
这样的创意。我们将与竞赛获奖者合作,为帮助他们进一步发展创意提供资金。

这些新的计划将大大充实我们过去一年来的重要工作。为了促
进我们的外事和外交目标,我召集了一个有才干而且经验丰富的团队,领导我们就21世纪外交方略展开的努力。这个团队前往世界各地,协助各国政府和团体善用
连接技术的益处。他们发起“公民社会2.0行动”(Civil Society 2.0
Initiative),协助基层组织进入数字时代。他们在墨西哥制定了一个协助打击毒品暴力的方案,让民众向可靠的来源作出不露痕迹的检举,以免遭受报
复。他们也将移动银行带进阿富汗,现在正在刚果民主共和国进行同样的工作。在巴基斯坦,他们建立了一个首创的移动社交网络,称为“我们的声音”(Our
Voice)。这个网络已经产生了数千万条讯息,并将希望抵制暴力极端主义的巴基斯坦年轻人联系在一起。

在短短时间内,我们已经取得
了长足的进展,将这些技术的承诺转变成深富影响力的结果。可是仍有许多方面尚待努力。在我们和民营部门及外国政府联手推广21世纪外交方略的工具时,我们
必须谨记彼此都有责任捍卫我在今天所谈的自由。我们坚信,信息自由这样的原则不仅是良好的政策,也不仅和我们的国家价值观相连,它还具有普世性,并能产生
经济效益。

用市场语言来说,一家在突尼斯或越南的审查环境中运营的上市公司,其交易价格总是低于在自由社会运营的同类公司。如果企业
的决策者没有全球性的新闻和信息来源,投资者对其决策的信心终将下降。实施新闻和信息审查的国家必须认识到,从经济角度而言,审查政治言论和商业言论是没
有区别的。如果贵国的企业无法获取其中一类信息,其增长必将受到影响。

在制定商业决策时,美国公司日益将网络和信息自由视为更重要的
考量因素。我希望他们的竞争对手和外国政府会密切关注这一趋势。最近有关谷歌(Google)的情况引起了广泛的注意。我们希望中国当局对导致谷歌作出日
前宣布的网络攻击事件进行彻查。我们也希望调查及结果透明。

互联网已经成为中国取得巨大进步的源泉之一,令人惊叹。中国现在有如此多
的人都在上网。但是,限制自由获取信息或侵犯互联网用户基本权利的国家面临着使自己与下一个世纪的进步隔绝的风险。美中两国对于这个议题的看法不同,我们
希望在两国积极、合作、全面的关系之下坦诚和持续地处理这些差异。

这个议题不仅关系到信息自由,最终还关系到我们希望有一个什么样的世界以及我们将会生活于一个什么样的世界。它关系到我们生活的地球是有一个互联网、一个全球社会以及一个造福并联系全人类的共同知识体,还是支离破碎、获取信息和机遇要取决于居住地点和审查者的心血来潮。

信息自由有助于维护作为全球进步基础的和平与安全。从历史上看,不对称的信息获取能力是国家间冲突的主要原因之一。在我们面对严重纠纷或危险事件时,当事双方能够了解相同的事实和观点是至关重要的。


前的情况是,美国人民可以思考外国政府提供的信息——对于这些政府向美国国内传送信息,我们不设置障碍。但是,在实行信息检查的社会中生活的公民却无从得
知外界的看法。例如在北韩,政府极力使其公民与外部意见完全隔绝。这种信息流通的不对称不但增加了发生冲突的可能性,也容易使微小的分歧升级。因此,我期
待那些希望看到全球稳定的负责政府能和我们携手合作,改变这种不对称的情况。

对公司而言,这个问题所关系的不仅是道德威望,而且涉及
公司与用户之间的信任。世界各地的用户都希望自己所依赖的互联网公司会提供全面的搜索结果,并且以负责任的态度守护他们的个人信息。获得这种信赖并且基本
上提供这种服务的公司将在全球市场蓬勃发展。我确实相信,那些失去用户信赖的公司,最终将失去用户。住在任何地方的人都希望知道,他们放在网上的东西不会
被用来加害于自己。

审查不应被世界任何地方的任何公司以任何形式接受。在美国,美国公司需要采取有原则的立场。这应该成为我们国家品牌的组成部分。我相信全世界的用户都会回报尊重这些原则的公司。


们正在重振“全球互联网自由小组”(Global Internet Freedom Task
Force),作为应对全球网络自由所受威胁的论坛。我们敦促美国媒体公司主动采取措施,质疑外国政府对于审查和监视的要求。民营部门也有责任协助保护言
论表达自由。当他们的业务交易有可能破坏这种自由时,他们需要考虑什么是正确的,而不只是寻求短视的利润。

我们对于目前通过“全球网
络倡议”(Global Network
Initiative)所做的工作倍感鼓舞。“全球网络倡议”是一项由高科技公司与非政府组织、学术专家和社会投资基金共同合作,回应政府审查要求而做出
的自愿努力。这项倡议不仅仅是申明原则,更是建立旨在宣扬真正责任感和透明度的机制。我们承诺支持负责任的民营部门参与护卫信息自由,作为我们承诺的组成
部分,国务院将在下月召集一次高层会议,由罗伯特•霍马茨(Robert Hormats)和玛丽亚•奥特罗(Maria
Otero)两位副国务卿共同主持。会议将召集提供网络服务的公司,共同讨论互联网自由问题,因为我们希望与合作伙伴共同应对这个二十一世纪的挑战。


相信,追求我今天所说的自由是正确之举,但它也是智慧之举。通过推进这个议程,我们将使我们的原则、我们的经济目标以及我们的战略重点一致起来。我们需要
努力创建这样一个世界:在这个世界中,网络和信息使人民之间的关系更加密切,也使我们的全球社区概念得到扩展。鉴于我们面临的诸多巨大挑战,我们需要世界
各地的人民汇合他们的知识和创造力,帮助重建全球经济,保护我们的环境,战胜暴力极端主义,建设每一个人都能充分发挥和实现其天赋潜力的未来。


结束今天的讲话时,我要请你们记住星期一在太子港的废墟中获救的那个小女孩。她还活着,已经与她的家人团聚,并将有机会长大成人,因为网络把一个被埋得很
深的声音传播到全世界。我们不能容许任何国家、群体或个人继续被埋在压制的废墟之下。当层层审查墙把一些人与人类大家庭隔离开来的时候,我们不能袖手旁
观。我们不能因为听不到那些人的呼喊就对这些问题保持沉默。

因此,让我们重新作出承诺,为这一事业而努力。让我们把这些高科技化作推动全世界取得切实进步的力量。让我们并肩前进,倡导这些自由——为了我们这个时代,也为了应当得到我们所能给予的每一个机会的年轻人。

非常感谢你们。(掌声)

美国国务院国际信息局 http://www.america.gov/mgck

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附图:《广州的blogger和媒体人正在"学习领会希拉里�讲话精神"

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Categories: 计算机与 Internet

Internet Freedom

2010年01月22日 Leave a comment

Internet Freedom

The prepared text of U.S. of Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton’s speech, delivered at the Newseum in Washington, D.C.

Thank you, Alberto for that kind introduction. It’s a
pleasure to be here at the Newseum. This institution is a monument to some of
our most precious freedoms, and I’m grateful for this opportunity to discuss
how those freedoms apply to the challenges of the 21st century. I’m also
delighted to see so many friends and former colleagues.

This is an important speech on an important subject. But
before I begin, I want to speak briefly about Haiti. During the last nine days,
the people of Haiti and the people of the world have joined together to deal
with a tragedy of staggering proportions. Our hemisphere has seen its share of
hardship, but there are few precedents for the situation we’re facing in
Port-au-Prince.  Communication networks
have played a critical role in our response. In the hours after the quake, we
worked with partners in the private sector to set up the text "HAITI"
campaign so that mobile phone users in the United States could donate to relief
efforts via text message.  That
initiative has been a showcase for the generosity of the American people and
it’s raised over $25 million for recovery efforts.

Information networks have also played a critical role on
the ground.

The technology community has set up interactive maps to
help identify needs and target resources. And on Monday, a seven-year-old girl
and two women were pulled from the rubble of a collapsed supermarket by an
American search and rescue team after they sent a text message calling for
help. These examples are manifestations of a much broader phenomenon.

The spread of information networks is forming a new
nervous system for our planet. When something happens in Haiti or Hunan the
rest of us learn about it in real time – from real people. And we can respond
in real time as well. Americans eager to help in the aftermath of a disaster
and the girl trapped in that supermarket are connected in ways that we weren’t
a generation ago.  That same principle
applies to almost all of humanity. As we sit here today, any of you – or any of
our children – can take out tools we carry with us every day and transmit this
discussion to billions across the world.

In many respects, information has never been so free. There
are more ways to spread more ideas to more people than at any moment in
history. Even in authoritarian countries, information networks are helping
people discover new facts and making governments more accountable.

During his visit to China in November, President Obama
held a town hall meeting with an online component to highlight the importance
of the internet. In response to a question that was sent in over the internet,
he defended the right of people to freely access information, and said that the
more freely information flows, the stronger societies become. He spoke about
how access to information helps citizens to hold their governments accountable,
generates new ideas, and encourages creativity. The United States’ belief in
that truth is what brings me here today.

But amid this unprecedented surge in connectivity, we
must also recognize that these technologies are not an unmitigated blessing. These
tools are also being exploited to undermine human progress and political
rights. Just as steel can be used to build hospitals or machine guns and
nuclear energy can power a city or destroy it, modern information networks and
the technologies they support can be harnessed for good or ill. The same
networks that help organize movements for freedom also enable al Qaeda to spew
hatred and incite violence against the innocent. And technologies with the
potential to open up access to government and promote transparency can also be
hijacked by governments to crush dissent and deny human rights.

In the last year, we’ve seen a spike in threats to the
free flow of information. China, Tunisia, and Uzbekistan have stepped up their
censorship of the internet. In Vietnam, access to popular social networking
sites has suddenly disappeared. And last Friday in Egypt, 30 bloggers and
activists were detained. One member of this group, Bassem Samir – who is
thankfully no longer in prison – is with us today. So while it is clear that
the spread of these technologies is transforming our world, it is still unclear
how that transformation will affect the human rights and welfare of much of the
world’s population.

SYNCING PROGRESS WITH PRINCIPLES

On their own, new technologies do not take sides in the
struggle for freedom and progress. But the United States does. We stand for a
single internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas. And
we recognize that the world’s information infrastructure will become what we
and others make of it.

This challenge may be new, but our responsibility to help
ensure the free exchange of ideas goes back to the birth of our republic. The
words of the First Amendment to the Constitution are carved in 50 tons of
Tennessee marble on the front of this building. And every generation of
Americans has worked to protect the values etched in that stone.

Franklin Roosevelt built on these ideas when he delivered
his Four Freedoms speech in 1941. At the time, Americans faced a cavalcade of
crises and a crisis of confidence. But the vision of a world in which all
people enjoyed freedom of expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want,
and freedom from fear transcended the trouble of his day.

Years later, one of my heroes, Eleanor Roosevelt, worked
to have these principles adopted as a cornerstone of the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights. They have provided a lodestar to every succeeding generation –
guiding us, galvanizing us, and enabling us to move forward in the face of
uncertainty.

As technology hurtles forward, we must think back to that
legacy. We need to synchronize our technological progress with our principles. In
accepting the Nobel Prize, President Obama spoke about the need to build a
world in which peace rests on the "inherent rights and dignity of every
individual." And in my speech on human rights at Georgetown I talked about
how we must find ways to make human rights a reality. Today, we find an urgent
need to protect these freedoms on the digital frontiers of the 21st century.

There are many other networks in the world – some aid in
the movement of people or resources; and some facilitate exchanges between
individuals

with the same work or interests. But the internet is a
network that

magnifies the power and potential of all others. And
that’s why we believe it’s critical that its users are assured certain basic
freedoms.

FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

First among them is the freedom of expression. This
freedom is no longer defined solely by whether citizens can go into the town
square and criticize their government without fear of retribution. Blogs,
email, social networks, and text messages have opened up new forums for
exchanging ideas – and created new targets for censorship.

As I speak to you today, government censors are working
furiously to erase my words from the records of history. But history itself has
already condemned these tactics. Two months ago, I was in Germany to celebrate
the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall. The leaders gathered at
that ceremony paid tribute to the courageous men and women on the far side of
that barrier who made the case against oppression by circulating small
pamphlets called samizdat. These leaflets questioned the claims and intentions
of dictatorships in the Eastern Bloc, and many people paid dearly for
distributing them. But their words helped pierce the concrete and concertina
wire of the Iron Curtain.

The Berlin Wall symbolized a world divided, and it
defined an entire era. Today, remnants of that wall sit inside this museum –
where they belong. And the new iconic infrastructure of our age is the
internet.

Instead of division, it stands for connection. But even
as networks spread to nations around the globe, virtual walls are cropping up
in place of visible walls.

Some countries have erected electronic barriers that
prevent their people from accessing portions of the world’s networks. They have
expunged words, names and phrases from search engine results. They have
violated the privacy of citizens who engage in non-violent political speech. These
actions contravene the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, which tells us
that all people have the right "to seek, receive and impart information
and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers." With the spread
of these restrictive practices, a new information curtain is descending across
much of the world. Beyond this partition, viral videos and blog posts are
becoming the samizdat of our day.

As in the dictatorships of the past, governments are
targeting independent thinkers who use these tools. In the demonstrations that
followed Iran’s presidential elections, grainy cell phone footage of a young
woman’s bloody murder provided a digital indictment of the government’s
brutality. We’ve seen reports that when Iranians living overseas posted online
criticism of their nation’s leaders, their family members in Iran were singled
out for retribution. And despite an intense campaign of government
intimidation, brave citizen journalists in Iran continue using technology to
show the world and their fellow citizens what is happening in their country. In
speaking out on behalf of their own human rights the Iranian people have
inspired the world.

And their courage is redefining how technology is used to
spread truth and expose injustice.

All societies recognize that free expression has its
limits. We do not tolerate those who incite others to violence, such as the
agents of al Qaeda who are – at this moment – using the internet to promote the
mass murder of innocent people. And hate speech that targets individuals on the
basis of their ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation is reprehensible. It is
an unfortunate fact that these issues are both growing challenges that the
international community must confront together. We must also grapple with the
issue of anonymous speech. Those who use the internet to recruit terrorists or
distribute stolen intellectual property cannot divorce their online actions
from their real world identities. But these challenges must not become an
excuse for governments to systematically violate the rights and privacy of
those who use the internet for peaceful political purposes.

FREEDOM OF WORSHIP

The freedom of expression may be the most obvious freedom
to face challenges with the spread of new technologies, but it is not alone. The
freedom of worship usually involves the rights of individuals to commune – or
not commune – with their Creator. And that’s one channel of communication that
does not rely on technology. But the freedom of worship also speaks to the
universal right to come together with those who share your values and vision
for humanity. In our history, those gatherings often took place in churches,
synagogues, temples, and mosques. Today, they may also take place on line.

The internet can help bridge divides between people of
different faiths.

As the president said in Cairo, "freedom of religion
is central to the ability of people to live together." And as we look for
ways to expand dialogue, the internet holds out tremendous promise. We have
already begun connecting students in the United States with young people in
Muslim communities around the world to discuss global challenges. And we will
continue using this tool to foster discussion between individuals in different
religious communities.

Some nations, however, have co-opted the internet as a
tool to target and silence people of faith. Last year in Saudi Arabia, a man
spent months in prison for blogging about Christianity. And a Harvard study
found that the Saudi government blocked many web pages about Hinduism, Judaism,
Christianity, and even Islam. Countries including Vietnam and China employed
similar tactics to restrict access to religious information.

Just as these technologies must not be used to punish
peaceful political speech, they must not be used to persecute or silence
religious minorities. Prayers will always travel on higher networks. But
connection technologies like the internet and social networking sites should
enhance individuals’ ability to worship as they see fit, come together with
people of their own faith, and learn more about the beliefs of others. We must
work to advance the freedom of worship online just as we do in other areas of
life.

FREEDOM FROM WANT

There are, of course, hundreds of millions of people
living without the benefits of these technologies. In our world, talent is
distributed universally, but opportunity is not. And we know from long
experience that promoting social and economic development in countries where
people lack access to knowledge, markets, capital, and opportunity can be
frustrating, and sometimes futile work. In this context, the internet can serve
as a great equalizer. By providing people with access to knowledge and
potential markets, networks can create opportunity where none exists.

Over the last year, I’ve seen this first hand. In Kenya,
where farmers have seen their income grow by as much as 30% since they started
using mobile banking technology. In Bangladesh, where more than 300,000 people
have signed up to learn English on their mobile phones. And in sub-Saharan
Africa, where women entrepreneurs use the internet to get access to microcredit
loans and connect to global markets. These examples of progress can be
replicated in the lives of the billion people at the bottom of the world’s
economic ladder.  In many cases,

the internet, mobile phones, and other connection
technologies can do for economic growth what the green revolution did for
agriculture. You can now generate significant yields from very modest inputs. One
World Bank study found that in a typical developing country, a 10% increase in
the penetration rate for mobile phones led to an almost one percent annual
increase in per capita GDP. To put that in perspective, for India, that would
translate into almost $10 billion a year.

A connection to global information networks is like an on
a ramp to modernity. In the early years of these technologies, many believed
they would divide the world between haves and have-nots. That hasn’t happened.
There are 4 billion cell phones in use today – many are in the hands of market
vendors, rickshaw drivers, and others who’ve historically lacked access to
education and opportunity. Information networks have become a great leveler,
and we should use them to help lift people out of poverty.

FREEDOM FROM FEAR

We have every reason to be hopeful about what people can
accomplish when they leverage communication networks and connection
technologies to achieve progress. But some will use global information networks
for darker purposes. Violent extremists, criminal cartels, sexual predators,
and authoritarian governments all seek to exploit global networks. Just as
terrorists have taken advantage of the openness of our society to carry out
their plots, violent extremists use the internet to radicalize and intimidate. As
we work to advance these freedoms, we must also work against those who use
communication networks as tools of disruption and fear.

Governments and citizens must have confidence that the
networks at the core of their national security and economic prosperity are
safe and resilient. This is about more than petty hackers who deface websites.

Our ability to bank online, use electronic commerce, and
safeguard billions of dollars in intellectual property are all at stake if we
cannot rely on the security of information networks.

Disruptions in these systems demand a coordinated
response by governments, the private sector, and the international community. We
need more tools to help law enforcement agencies cooperate across jurisdictions
when criminal hackers and organized crime syndicates attack networks for
financial gain. The same is true when social ills such as child pornography and
the exploitation of trafficked women and girls migrate online. We applaud
efforts such as the Council on Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime that
facilitate international cooperation in prosecuting such offenses.

We have taken steps as a government, and as a Department,
to find diplomatic solutions to strengthen global cyber security. Over a
half-dozen different Bureaus have joined together to work on this issue, and
two years ago we created an office to coordinate foreign policy in cyberspace.
We have worked to address this challenge at the UN and other multilateral
forums and put cyber-security on the world’s agenda. And President Obama has
appointed a new national cyberspace policy coordinator who will help us work
even more closely to ensure that our networks stay free, secure, and reliable.

States, terrorists, and those who would act as their
proxies must know that the United States will protect our networks. Those who
disrupt the free flow of information in our society, or any other, pose a
threat to our economy, our government and our civil society. Countries or
individuals that engage in cyber attacks should face consequences and
international condemnation. In an interconnected world, an attack on one
nation’s networks can be an attack on all. By reinforcing that message, we can
create norms of behavior among states and encourage respect for the global
networked commons.

THE FREEDOM TO CONNECT

The final freedom I want to address today flows from the
four I’ve already mentioned: the freedom to connect – the idea that governments
should not prevent people from connecting to the internet, to websites, or to
each other. The freedom to connect is like the freedom of assembly in cyber
space. It allows individuals to get online, come together, and hopefully
cooperate in the name of progress. Once you’re on the internet, you don’t need
to be a tycoon or a rock star to have a huge impact on society.

The largest public response to the terrorist attacks in
Mumbai was launched by a 13-year-old boy. He used social networks to organize
blood drives and a massive interfaith book of condolence. In Colombia, an
unemployed engineer brought together more than 12 million people in 190 cities
around the world to demonstrate against the FARC terrorist movement. The
protests were the largest anti-terrorist demonstrations in history. In the
weeks that followed, the FARC saw more demobilizations and desertions than it
had during a decade of military action. And in Mexico, a single email from a
private citizen who was fed up with drug-related violence snowballed into huge
demonstrations in all of the country’s 32 states. In Mexico City alone, 150,000
people took to the streets in protest. The internet can help humanity push back
against those who promote violence and extremism.

In Iran, Moldova, and many other countries, online
organizing has been a critical tool for advancing democracy, and enabling
citizens to protest suspicious election results. Even in established
democracies like the United States, we’ve seen the power of these tools to
change history. Some of you may still remember the 2008 presidential
election…

The freedom to connect to these technologies can help
transform societies, but it is also critically important to individuals. I
recently heard the story of a doctor who had been trying desperately to
diagnose his daughter’s rare medical condition. After consulting with two dozen
specialists, he still didn’t have an answer. He finally identified the
condition – and a cure – by using an internet search engine. That’s one of the
reasons why unfettered access to search engine technology is so important.

APPLYING PRINCIPLES TO POLICY

The principles I’ve outlined today will guide our
approach to the issue of internet freedom and the use of these technologies. And
I want to speak about how we apply them in practice. The United States is
committed to devoting the diplomatic, economic and technological resources
necessary to advance these freedoms. We are a nation made up of immigrants from
every country and interests that span the globe. Our foreign policy is premised
on the idea that no country stands to benefit more when cooperation among
peoples and states increases. And no country shoulders a heavier burden when
conflict drives nations apart.

We are well placed to seize the opportunities that come
with interconnectivity. And as the birthplace for so many of these
technologies, we have a responsibility to see them used for good. To do that,
we need to develop our capacity for 21st century statecraft.

Realigning our policies and our priorities won’t be easy.
But adjusting to new technology rarely is. When the telegraph was introduced,
it was a source of great anxiety for many in the diplomatic community, where
the prospect of receiving daily instructions from Washington was not entirely
welcome. But just as our diplomats eventually mastered the telegraph, I have
supreme confidence that the world can harness the potential of these new tools
as well.

I’m proud that the State Department is already working in
more than 40 countries to help individuals silenced by oppressive governments. We
are making this issue a priority in at the United Nations as well, and included
internet freedom as a component in the first resolution we introduced after
returning to the UN Human Rights Council.

We are also supporting the development of new tools that enable
citizens to exercise their right of free expression by circumventing
politically motivated censorship. We are working globally to make sure that
those tools get to the people who need them, in local languages, and with the
training they need to access the internet safely. The United States has been
assisting in these efforts for some time. Both the American people and nations
that censor the internet should understand that our government is proud to help
promote internet freedom.

We need to put these tools in the hands of people around
the world who will use them to advance democracy and human rights, fight
climate change and epidemics, build global support for President Obama’s goal
of a world without nuclear weapons, and encourage sustainable economic
development. That’s why today I’m announcing that over the next year, we will
work with partners in industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations to
establish a standing effort that will harness the power of connection
technologies and apply them to our diplomatic goals. By relying on mobile
phones, mapping applications, and other new tools, we can empower citizens and
leverage our traditional diplomacy. We can also address deficiencies in the
current market for innovation.

Let me give you one example: let’s say I want to create a
mobile phone application that would allow people to rate government ministries
on their responsiveness, efficiency, and level of corruption. The hardware
required to make this idea work is already in the hands of billions of
potential users. And the software involved would be relatively inexpensive to
develop and deploy. If people took advantage of this tool, it would help us
target foreign assistance spending, improve lives, and encourage foreign
investment in countries with responsible governments – all good things. However,
right now, mobile application developers have no financial incentive to pursue
that project on their own and the State Department lacks a mechanism to make it
happen. This initiative should help resolve that problem, and provide long-term
dividends from modest investments in innovation. We’re going to work with
experts to find the best structure for this venture, and we’ll need the talent
and resources of technology companies and non-profit organizations in order to
get the best results. So for those of you in this room, consider yourselves
invited.

In the meantime, there are companies, individuals, and
institutions working on ideas and applications that could advance our
diplomatic and development objectives. And the State Department will be
launching an innovation competition to give this work an immediate boost. We’ll
be asking Americans to send us their best ideas for applications and
technologies that help to break down language barriers, overcome illiteracy,
and connect people to the services and information they need. Microsoft, for
example, has already developed a prototype for a digital doctor that could help
provide medical care in isolated rural communities. We want to see more ideas
like that. And we’ll work with the winners of the competition and provide grant
to help build their ideas to scale.

PRIVATE SECTOR AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITY

As we work together with the private sector and foreign
governments to deploy the tools of 21st century statecraft, we need to remember
our shared responsibility to safeguard the freedoms I’ve talked about today.

We feel strongly that principles like information freedom
aren’t just good policy, they’re good business for all involved. To use market
terminology, a publicly-listed company in Tunisia or Vietnam that operates in
an environment of censorship will always trade at a discount relative to an
identical firm in a free society. If corporate decision makers don’t have access
to global sources of news and information, investors will have less confidence
in their decisions. Countries that censor news and information must recognize
that, from an economic standpoint, there is no distinction between censoring
political speech and commercial speech. If businesses in your nation are denied
access to either type of information, it will inevitably reduce growth.

Increasingly, U.S. companies are making the issue of
information freedom a greater consideration in their business decisions. I hope
that their competitors and foreign governments will pay close attention to this
trend.

The most recent example of Google’s review of its
business operations in China has attracted a great deal of interest. We look to
Chinese authorities to conduct a thorough investigation of the cyber intrusions
that led Google to make this announcement. We also look for that investigation
and its results to be transparent. The internet has already been a source of
tremendous progress in China, and it’s great that so many people there are now
online. But countries that restrict free access to information or violate the
basic rights of internet users risk walling themselves off from the progress of
the next century. The United States and China have different views on this
issue. And we intend to address those differences candidly and consistently.

Ultimately, this issue isn’t just about information
freedom; it’s about what kind of world we’re going to inhabit. It’s about
whether we live on a planet with one internet, one global community, and a
common body of knowledge that unites and benefits us all. Or a fragmented
planet in which access to information and opportunity is dependent on where you
live and the whims of censors.

Information freedom supports the peace and security that
provide a foundation for global progress. Historically, asymmetrical access to
information is one of the leading causes of interstate conflict. When we face
serious disputes or dangerous incidents, it’s critical that people on both
sides of the problem have access to the same set of facts and opinions.

As it stands, Americans can consider information
presented by foreign governments – we do not block their attempts to
communicate with people in the United States. But citizens in societies that
practice censorship lack exposure to outside views. In North Korea, for
example, the government has tried to completely isolate its citizens from
outside opinions. This lop-sided access to information increases both the
likelihood of conflict and the probability that small disagreements will
escalate. I hope responsible governments with an interest in global stability
will work to address such imbalances.

For companies, this issue is about more than claiming the
moral high ground; it comes down to the trust between firms and their
customers. Consumers everywhere want to have confidence that the internet
companies they rely on will provide comprehensive search results and act as
responsible stewards of their information. Firms that earn that confidence will
prosper in a global marketplace. Those who lose it will also lose customers. I
hope that refusal to support politically-motivated censorship will become a
trademark characteristic of American technology companies. It should be part of
our national brand. I’m confident that consumers worldwide will reward firms
that respect these principles.

We are reinvigorating the Global Internet Freedom Task
Force as a forum for addressing threats to internet freedom around the world, and
urging U.S. media companies to take a proactive role in challenging foreign
governments’ demands for censorship and surveillance. The private sector has a
shared responsibility to help safeguard free expression. And when their
business dealings threaten to undermine this freedom, they need to consider
what’s right, not simply the prospect of quick profits.

We’re also encouraged by the work that’s being done
through the Global Network Initiative – a voluntary effort by technology
companies who are working with non-governmental organization, academic experts,
and social investment funds to respond to government requests for censorship. The
Initiative goes beyond mere statements of principle and establishes mechanisms
to promote real accountability and transparency. As part of our commitment to
support responsible private sector engagement on information freedom, the State
Department will be convening a high-level meeting next month co-chaired by
Under Secretaries Robert Hormats and Maria Otero to bring together firms that
provide network services for talks on internet freedom. We hope to work
together to address this challenge.

CONCLUSION

Pursuing the freedoms I’ve talked about today is the
right thing to do.

But it’s also the smart thing to do. By advancing this
agenda, we align our principles, our economic goals, and our strategic
priorities. We need to create a world in which access to networks and
information brings people closer together, and expands our definition of
community.

Given the magnitude of the challenges we’re facing, we
need people around the world to pool their knowledge and creativity to help
rebuild the global economy, protect our environment, defeat violent extremism,
and build a future in which every human being can realize their God-given
potential.

Let me close by asking you to remember the little girl
who was pulled from the rubble on Monday in Port-au-Prince. She is alive, was
reunited with her family, and will have the opportunity to help rebuild her
nation because these networks took a voice that was buried and spread it to the
world. No nation, group, or individual should stay buried in the rubble of
oppression. We cannot stand by while people are separated from our human family
by walls of censorship. And we cannot be silent about these issues simply
because we cannot hear their cries. Let us recommit ourselves to this cause. Let
us make these technologies a force for real progress the world over. And let us
go forward together to champion these freedoms.

from:http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/01/21/internet_freedom?page=0,0

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